Day 2 :
Technical University of Berlin, Germany
Keynote: Synthesis of highly active Pt nanoparticles with grape seeds (Vitis vinifera), mangosteen skin (Garcinia mangostana) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) as the reducing agents
Time : 10:00-10:40
Riny Yolandha Patapat has completed her PhD from Technical University of Berlin (TU-Berlin). Currently she is doing her postdoctoral research at TU-Berlin. She is also a lecturer in Itenas Bandung. Her specialty is in the field of nanomaterial synthesis and catalysis in the greener way, also in biofuel production.
The latest development of nanotechnology has been using bio-material as a reducing agent to synthesize nanoparticles. Bio-materials such as plants can reduce metal ions both on the surface and in the various organs of plants. Plants contain antioxidant compounds that can reduce metal ions. Here, grape seeds (Vitis vinifera), mangosteen skin (Garcinia mangostana) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) were used as the reductant. These biomaterial are classified as the weak reductant. Grape seed contains the main antioxidant of ~78% namely Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins (OPC) which play a main role as the reducing agent, whereas Mangosteen skin contains Xanthone (~84%) and Clove contains Eugenol (~85 %) as the main antioxidant.
We synthesized Pt nanoparticles by using the bio-materials mentioned above via microemulsion method. The results from characterization with transmission electron microscopy show that metal nanoparticles with different shapes were produced. By combining the thermo-destabilization of microemulsion technique and the use of the bio-reductants, we are able to produce a highly active supported Pt nanocatalyst. The results show that the activity of the produced Pt nanodendrites is much higher than those which were prepared with the harmful chemical (hydrazine). This superior activity is due to the anisotropic structure of the produce Pt nanodendrites. In a challenging reaction such as hydrogenation of levulinic acid, which is normally carried out at high temperature (~240°C) and high pressure (~100 bar), the produced Pt nanodendrites are able to reach 98 % of GVL (biofuel) selectivity at 94% conversion at a mild reaction condition (1.3 bar and 70 °C).
Dyason Inc, Republic of South Africa
Keynote: Material transfer agreements for human biological material: Successful sample and data sharing in the framework of European and South African privacy laws
Time : 10:40-11:20
Marietjie is the founder and Managing Director of Biolawgic, a private company focussing on the promotion of bioethics and a Director at Dyason Inc in Pretoria where she specialises in Health-tech, Fin-tech and Bio-tech Contracts, Biotechnology Law, Health Care and Life Sciences Law and Insurance Litigation. Marietjie is particularly interested in and passionate about genetic, genomic and stem cell research and has published numerous articles in both national and international journals on these topics.
Insurance companies in South Africa are increasingly developing insurance products which will enable patients to afford genetic testing for purposes of personalised medicine, specifically in the oncology fields. But because South Africa does not currently possess sufficient local capacity to sequence and/or test genetic samples, these services will have to be outsourced to laboratories in foreign countries. South Africa is also home to the San, an indigenous population with the oldest living genes on earth, which make this population highly sought after for GWAS and other genomic research. It is thus clear that South Africa scientists and medical practitioners will increasingly engage with their foreign counter parts by means of Material Transfer Agreements, as these are only two examples of areas where the cross border transfer of human biological material will be imminent. In July 2018 South Africa has adopted its first formal Material Transfer Agreement for Human Biological Materials in terms of its National Health Act 61 of 2003 which, amongst others, addresses issues such as benefit sharing, informed consent, publications and publicity. However, this agreement sorely lacks substance when it comes to the management of intellectual property, which often constitutes the lifeline of biotechnology companies. It also does not deal with material ownership, as opposed to possession, or privacy, further considering that genetic material and genetic sequences resulting therefrom cannot really be de-identified to comply with the recently enacted European GDPR and the South African Protection of Personal Information Act 4 of 2013. Further considering the vulnerability of both sick patients and an indigenous minority group, coupled with the sensitivity of the medical and population data that may be gather from the genetic testing and/or sequencing of these persons, the value of Material Transfer Agreements (MTA) and the ethics and legal issues surrounding it is of critical importance to ensure a balance between the rights and protection of patients or research participants and easy access to biotechnological services, samples and data by scientists and medical practitioners to aid biomedical innovation.
- Bioscience | Plant & Agricultural Biotechnology | Health & Pharmaceutical Biotechnology | Nano- Biotechnology | Biotechnology & Molecular Biology | Biosafety & Bioethics
Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Germany
Title: Unraveling origin of spectral tuning in phytochrome photoreceptor proteins enables rational design of the near-infrared absorbing molecular tools
Time : 11:35-12:00
Egle Maximowitsch has completed her Bachelor’s degree in biochemistry at Vilnius University, Lithuania in 2013 and Master’s degree in molecular biosciences at Heidelberg University, Germany in 2015. Since 2015, she is a PhD student in computational photobiology at Max Planck Institute for Medical Research in Heidelberg, Germany.
Near-infrared absorbing molecular tools are in high demand for in vivo imaging and control of biological processes. Such tools can be engineered on the basis of phytochrome photoreceptor proteins which play a central role in red/far-red light reception in various organisms. Phytochromes can photoswitch between two thermally stable red-absorbing (Pr) and far-red-absorbing (Pfr) forms, although the molecular mechanism inducing the spectral tuning in phytochromes was unknown yet. We performed computational studies and identified molecular origin of the red spectral shift in the Pfr state. Quantum-chemical calculations demonstrated that interactions between the ring D of the tetrapyrrole chromophore and conserved aspartate lead to a change in the tetrapyrrole electronic structure, which translates to the red shift of the absorption maximum. The MD simulations demonstrated that these interactions can form only after other structural changes take place in the protein ensuring a coupling of the phytochrome spectral and conformational switching. Our study provides understanding of how hydrogen bonding controls phytochrome optical properties and enables rational design of phytochromes and other tetrapyrrole binding proteins as optogenetic tools and fluorescent proteins operating in the far-red spectral region.
University of Belgrade, Serbia
Title: Hybrid nanostructures of inorganic particles and biomolecules: Fabrication, antimicrobial activity and application in deep-UV imaging of live cells
Time : 12:00-12:25
Vladimir Djoković received his PhD in physics from University Belgrade (Faculty of Physics) in 1999. He spent two years as a postdoctoral fellow at University of the Free State, South Africa. In last couple of years, he was a visiting professor/researcher at NASA university research center, North Carolina Central University. So far, he published two book chapters and more than 60 papers in ISI journals. He is a leader of Polymer Nanocomposite group at Vinča institute from 2005 and a professor of polymer physics at Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade.
Hybrid nanostructures that comprise inorganic nanoparticles (noble metals, semiconductors) and biomolecules received a considerable attention in last decades due to a number of interesting fundamental properties as well as a wide range of possible applications. Here, we present the results on two types of hybrid structures: noble metal (Ag, Au) nanoparticles functionalized with small biological molecules (tryptophan, riboflavin) and ZnO‑biomacromolecule (cellulose, alginate) hybrids. The obtained materials were studied in detail by microscopic (TEM, SEM) and optical (PL and UV‑vis) techniques. The antimicrobial activity of the ZnO-, Ag- and ZnO/Ag-biomolecule hybrids was tested against the Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans pathogens. Silver nanoparticles functionalized with amino acid tryptophan and gold nanoparticles bi-functionalized with tryptophan and riboflavin were tested as fluorescent probes for deep-UV (DUV) imaging of microbial and cancer cells. DUV imaging was performed on DISCO beam line of synchrotron SOEIL, France. ZnO-biomacromolecule hybrids exhibit other interesting properties such as ability to immobilize antibodies, catalytic activity and a strong CO2 absorption, which will also be presented.
Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran
Time : 12:25-12:50
Maani Beigy is a student of General Medicine and Master of Public Health at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. He is also the former director of Students' Scientific Research Center (SSRC). He has worked on Internal Medicine studies and in leadership roles across a wide range of interdisciplinary research projects. His research focus is now on precision/personalized medicine and developing the statistical methods and informatics framework of this paradigm of medical practice.
Background: Precision medicine emerges as the most important contemporary paradigm shift of medical practice but has several challenges in evidence synthesis and implementation for clinical practice. Because a modern physician, someone who practices precision medicine, should be able to quantify the possibility of having a particular condition precisely and to precisely choose the interventions for a particular individual.
Aim: We aimed to develop the required framework as a clinician-friendly, rapid, and low-cost clinical predictive method.
Methods: Generalized resemblance theory of evidence mainly rests upon generalized theory of uncertainty (GTU) which manages information as generalized constraints rather than limited statistical data, and also prototype resemblance theory of disease which defines the conditions (i.e., groups or subgroups) based on similarity measures with those prototypes and subgroups.
Results: We developed generalized resemblance linear models (GRLM) which are hybrid possibility-probability models that employ similarity measures to connect the high-dimensional variables with precisely defined outcomes. We used the data from NHANES study. The predictive power of GRLM was tested in detection of depression, in which GRLM (GRLM c-statistics=0.941, p-value<0.001; sensitivity=91.3%; specificity=94.9%) surpassed classical generalized linear models (c-statistics=0.797, p-value<0.001; sensitivity=78.3%; specificity=76.4%). The generalizability of data was demonstrated at the 2013-2014 cycle of NHANES.
Conclusion: GRLM seems to emerge as a feasible, robust and generalizable model for clinical prediction models in the realm of precision psychiatry.
Wasit University, Iraq
Title: Genome sequencing of Leishmania species as causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iraq
Time : 13:50-14:15
Dr. Abdulsadah A. Rahi completed PhD at the age of 42 years from Al-Nahrain University and postdoctoral studies from Tehran University of Mediccal Science (TUMS). I am the Dean of Science College at Wasit University. I published more than 45 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of repute. I am a member of Iraqi Inventors and Innovators Society (IIIS) branch of International Federation of Inventors Associations (IFIA) and had attended International Exhibition of Inventors in Germany (Nuremberg, 2016) and China (Foshan, 2018) and earned Gold Prize.
Leishmaniasis is mainly seen in 14 of the 22 countries of EMRO region, Iraq is endemic to cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL). 120 of skin lesion samples were collected from suspected cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients during the period from September, 2015 to end of February, 2016 in several areas of Iraq. Dermal scrapings were analyzed both by Giemsa-smeared and cultivation on NNN and RPMI 1640 media. Skin biopsies of 5 to 10 mm in diameter were taken under sterile conditions from the border of the ulcer and divided into three parts; the first part of the sample was smeared onto a glass slide, fixed with methanol, stained by Giemsa and examined under microscopy. A second part was inoculated on Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle (NNN) and Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI 1640) media and the third part was kept in freezer until used in molecular methods. The cultures were incubated at 25°C and observed every week for one month. The results of present study showed 87.5 % positive by Giemsa-smeared, 75% and 70% by cultivation on NNN and RPMI 1640 media, respectively. These were mainly in age group (≤1-6) years old (36.2%), more in males (57.1%) than females (42.9%). There was no significant difference between genders. The results of our study showed that high number of ulcers 42 (40 %) were in arm and 67 (63.8%) presented with single lesion. All skin samples were detected by Nested- PCR and revealed Leishmania in 87.5% of skin samples; 74 (70.5%) typed as L. major and 31(29.5%) typed as L. tropica. Phylogenetic tree analysis based on the Kinetoplast DNA partial sequence was used for Leishmania sp. analysis.
Wasit University, Iraq
Title: Isolation of Leishmania species causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis from patients in endemic areas of Iraq: Identification and genotyping using molecular methods
Time : 14:15-14:40
Mrs. Magda A. Ali is PhD student at TUMS-IC completed MSc at the age of 42 years from Al-Anbar University / College of Medicine. I published more than 20 papers in reputed journals. I am a member of Iraqi Inventors and Innovators Society (IIIS) branch of International Federation of Inventors Associations (IFIA) and had attended International Exhibition of Inventors in Germany (Nuremberg, 2016) and China (Foshan, 2018) and earned Gold Prize.
Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) remains a serious public health concern in some parts of Iraq. Molecular characterization is now the most reliable method to differentiate between them and to determine their phylogenetic relationships. The aims of this study to evaluate the reappraisal of the diagnosis and epidemiology of CL in some parts of Iraq, by different parasitological, cultural, and this is the first study conducted to characterize Leishmania species causing CL among Iraqi people using PCR and RFLP-PCR methods.
Methods: A total of 86 cases of suspected cutaneous leishmaniasis were checked for Leishmania amastigote using Giemsa-stained smear; however the NovyMacneal Nicolle (NNN) culture led to the growth of promastigotes in all samples, then the samples were examined using PCR and RFLP-PCR methods.
Results: The highest infection (100 %) appeared by using PCR while the lowest infection (65.1%) appeared by culture on NNN media. The present study was revealed that the highest infection (60 %) caused by L.major than L.tropica (40 %) and there were two type of L.major and L.tropica; type A (40 %) and type B (60 %).Our results showed that 53(61.6%) of CL patients were had single lesion and 33(38.4%) had multiple lesions, and the ulcerative wet type lesions were present in 65.1 %, while the nodule dry type lesions were present in 34.9%.
Conclusion: Leishmania isolates collected from different parts of Iraq showed that L.major and L.tropica are the agents of CL. Moreover, the present study revealed that the genetic properties of a species can play an important role in the clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, epidemiology, and classification of the parasites. Control measures and health strategies should have high priorities to help treat the existing cases and prevent the expansion of the disease to new areas.
University of Khartoum, Sudan
Title: Assessment of the optimum sites for industrial-scale microalgae biofuel production in red sea region based on GIS models and estimation by mathematical modelling
Time : 14:40-15:05
Global interest in biofuel production has increased to achieve sustainable energy production and reduce climatic change especially in developing countries. The present study is pioneer resource assessment study in the Sudan and the Red Sea region. Its objectives are fourfold: to verify the existence of microalgae species in Sudanese’s Red Sea coast zone which are globally reported for their high biomass and biofuel production, to determine the potentially suitable sites for commercial production of microalgae, to estimate the biomass and biofuel productivity and the amount of sequestered carbon. The study made use of Red Sea algal review to verify the existence of the required species. The multi criteria analysis (MCA), as a GIS tool, was used for best site selection is used for industrial scale microalgae cultivation and biofuel production. Climate parameters, land use, landcover, slope and power plants as nutrients sources for CO2 were considered. Theoretical calculations used for potential of biomass, lipids productivity and estimate of carbon fixation for study area based on sunlight and other climatic conditions of site selection assuming cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in open pond system. The results of suitability analysis determined the bare land out Port Sudan city as suitable site for production with a total area estimated to be 19385 hectares. Carbon fixation for Red Sea was (279.8 T/ha/ year), (72427.4 L/ha/year) and (23.3 gco2/m/d), respectively, this figure are more suitable in compression with other tropical sites such as India, Ethiopia and Australia respectively. However, according to economic and environmental benefits, the study will provide a base to support decision-makers to establish generic strategy to enhance renewable energy sector to meet the SDGS.
University of Baghdad, Iraq
Title: The effect of chronic renal failure on thyroid hormones specificity measured fT3 in a sample of Iraqi patients
Time : 15:05-15:30
Ahmed Abdul Al-Abbas Shakir Al-jibawi completed master degree at the age of 36 years from Baghdad university-college of medicine and after having obtained a Bachelor of Science in the Department of Industrial Pharmaceutical Chemistry. His research was on the use of pharmaceutical polymers such as Eudragit and ethyl cellulose in the manufacture of pharmaceutical molds. He also received the Diploma of Pharmacy Technician and he was in the field of pharmacy for 12 years.
Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the thyroid gland function in patients with chronic renal failure and an attempt to find a relationship between chronic renal failure and thyroid dysfunctions.
Subjects & Methods: A total of 96 subjects with age range from 15-67 years old (56 males and 40 females) were included in this study. Total number was divided into two groups according to their number Group A. Study group: (haemodialysis HD) consists of 48 patients and Group B. Control group: consists of 48 subjects. Also they were divided according to gender: Group I: Male (n=56) and Group II: Female (n=40).
Results: T3, T4, TSH, fT3, urea, creatinine, albumin and TSP were measured in each of the two groups. The results revealed statistically significant reduction in the serum level of tT3, fT3 more than tT4 in CRF group in comparison with normal levels in control group while there is no statistically significant difference seen between case and control groups with regard to TSH.
Conclusion: There is a decrease in the serum level of tT3, tT4 and fT3 but the decrease of tT3 and fT3 is more than tT4 in CRF group in comparison with normal levels in control group.
Beni Suef University, Egypt
Time : 15:30-15:55
Mai M. Raslan works as a lecturer at Biotechnology and Life Sciences Department, Faculty of Postgraduate Studies for Advanced Sciences, Beni-Suef University, Egypt. Mai Raslan has completed her PhD in Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cairo University, Egypt in 2011.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chief global public health concern, as it is a tremendously widespread endocrine disease that causes many complications risking patient’s quality of life. The correlation of diabetes and disturbance of zinc homeostasis made zinc oxide nanoparticles an attractive therapeutic suggestion. Glucose-phosphorylating enzyme glucokinase (GK) and glucose transporter GLUT2, had been implicated in glucose metabolism control in DM. Curcumin, the major active polyphenolic constituent of turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma longa, family Zingiberaceae), shows pleiotropic effects on a wide spectrum of molecular targets. In DM, curcumin exerts hypoglycemic effects via different mechanisms including GK and GLUT2 gene expression. The use of nanoparticles in medicine is an attractive proposition. The current study aims to evaluate the potential activities of prepared and characterized curcumin nanoparticles (Curc-NP), zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NP), and curcumin-zinc oxide composite nanoparticles (Curc-ZnO-NP) on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats (10 rats/group). The potential defending character of every treatment against diabetic rats was evaluated by investigating different biochemical (glucose, insulin, urea, creatinine, HbA1-C, AST and ALT) and histopathological parameters as well as protein expression of GK and GLUT2 in the pancreas and livers of diabetic rats. Adult Wistar albino rats (180-200 g) were injected intraperitoneally with a freshly prepared STZ single dose (50 mg/kg b.w.) for the induction of type-2 DM. Diabetic rats were treated orally with a daily dose of 50 mg/kg b.w. of Curc-NP, and 10 mg/kg b.w. of ZnO-NP, Curc-ZnO-NP, and diamicron (traditional anti-diabetic agent) for 21 days. All treatments showed significant reduced blood glucose, elevated insulin levels, regulated GLUT-2 and glucokinase genes, however, Curc-ZnO-NP showed the most potent anti-diabetic activities comparable to normal rats. The histopathological findings confirm the biochemical and molecular data recommending Curc-ZnO-NP as a potential anti-diabetic agent.