Day 2 :
Technical University of Berlin, Germany
Keynote: Synthesis of highly active Pt nanoparticles with grape seeds (Vitis vinifera), mangosteen skin (Garcinia mangostana) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) as the reducing agents
Time : 10:00-10:40
Riny Yolandha Patapat has completed her PhD from Technical University of Berlin (TU-Berlin). Currently she is doing her postdoctoral research at TU-Berlin. She is also a lecturer in Itenas Bandung. Her specialty is in the field of nanomaterial synthesis and catalysis in the greener way, also in biofuel production.
The latest development of nanotechnology has been using bio-material as a reducing agent to synthesize nanoparticles. Bio-materials such as plants can reduce metal ions both on the surface and in the various organs of plants. Plants contain antioxidant compounds that can reduce metal ions. Here, grape seeds (Vitis vinifera), mangosteen skin (Garcinia mangostana) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) were used as the reductant. These biomaterial are classified as the weak reductant. Grape seed contains the main antioxidant of ~78% namely Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins (OPC) which play a main role as the reducing agent, whereas Mangosteen skin contains Xanthone (~84%) and Clove contains Eugenol (~85 %) as the main antioxidant.
We synthesized Pt nanoparticles by using the bio-materials mentioned above via microemulsion method. The results from characterization with transmission electron microscopy show that metal nanoparticles with different shapes were produced. By combining the thermo-destabilization of microemulsion technique and the use of the bio-reductants, we are able to produce a highly active supported Pt nanocatalyst. The results show that the activity of the produced Pt nanodendrites is much higher than those which were prepared with the harmful chemical (hydrazine). This superior activity is due to the anisotropic structure of the produce Pt nanodendrites. In a challenging reaction such as hydrogenation of levulinic acid, which is normally carried out at high temperature (~240°C) and high pressure (~100 bar), the produced Pt nanodendrites are able to reach 98 % of GVL (biofuel) selectivity at 94% conversion at a mild reaction condition (1.3 bar and 70 °C).
Dyason Inc, Republic of South Africa
Keynote: Material transfer agreements for human biological material: Successful sample and data sharing in the framework of European and South African privacy laws
Time : 10:40-11:20
Marietjie is the founder and Managing Director of Biolawgic, a private company focussing on the promotion of bioethics and a Director at Dyason Inc in Pretoria where she specialises in Health-tech, Fin-tech and Bio-tech Contracts, Biotechnology Law, Health Care and Life Sciences Law and Insurance Litigation. Marietjie is particularly interested in and passionate about genetic, genomic and stem cell research and has published numerous articles in both national and international journals on these topics.
Insurance companies in South Africa are increasingly developing insurance products which will enable patients to afford genetic testing for purposes of personalised medicine, specifically in the oncology fields. But because South Africa does not currently possess sufficient local capacity to sequence and/or test genetic samples, these services will have to be outsourced to laboratories in foreign countries. South Africa is also home to the San, an indigenous population with the oldest living genes on earth, which make this population highly sought after for GWAS and other genomic research. It is thus clear that South Africa scientists and medical practitioners will increasingly engage with their foreign counter parts by means of Material Transfer Agreements, as these are only two examples of areas where the cross border transfer of human biological material will be imminent. In July 2018 South Africa has adopted its first formal Material Transfer Agreement for Human Biological Materials in terms of its National Health Act 61 of 2003 which, amongst others, addresses issues such as benefit sharing, informed consent, publications and publicity. However, this agreement sorely lacks substance when it comes to the management of intellectual property, which often constitutes the lifeline of biotechnology companies. It also does not deal with material ownership, as opposed to possession, or privacy, further considering that genetic material and genetic sequences resulting therefrom cannot really be de-identified to comply with the recently enacted European GDPR and the South African Protection of Personal Information Act 4 of 2013. Further considering the vulnerability of both sick patients and an indigenous minority group, coupled with the sensitivity of the medical and population data that may be gather from the genetic testing and/or sequencing of these persons, the value of Material Transfer Agreements (MTA) and the ethics and legal issues surrounding it is of critical importance to ensure a balance between the rights and protection of patients or research participants and easy access to biotechnological services, samples and data by scientists and medical practitioners to aid biomedical innovation.